Additions to Knowledge Base in 2013

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Supporting Music Innovation

29 November 2013


A pioneering project to list Australian organisations and programs that support musical innovation, across the music sector as indicated by the broad range of categories shown below. Most descriptions were supplied by the organisations themselves, ranging from local to national. The resulting list of 54 organisations is almost certain to be incomplete, and we hope that users of the Knowledge Base will assist with new items on an ongoing basis.

Compiler: Richard Letts        Categories: Mapping Music in Australia | Music Research | Technology | Computer Music | World Music | Jazz | Popular Music | New Music | Composition

The Provision of Music Education in Government Schools in Australia

28 November 2013

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The comprehensive statistical research in this article provides tangible evidence that major data gaps persist on the provision of music at both primary and secondary school level, and for instrumental as well as classroom music. The quality of the data which can be procured from state and territory school authorities (to supplement the non-specific ABS school statistics) differs among states but the general conclusion remains that this set of important indicators is seriously inadequate.

Author: Richard Letts        Categories: Statistics | School Music Education

Green Music Movement

13 November 2013

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A plan was set in motion in 2011 to form the Australian Green Music Coalition (AGMC) to represent a united industry front to affect change - "a chance to bring together the growing wealth of green music resources, contacts and information, so that we can make a larger impact on the industry, and thus the world."

Author: Asher Christophers        Categories: Issues | Music and the Environment

The Global Perspective on Music in Education, Appendix

31 October 2013

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The appendix to the foregoing entry contains a source summary of the work by the President's Committee on the Arts and the Humanities (dated 2011).

Author: Mandy Stefanakis        Categories: Music and Brain Science | Mapping Music in Australia | School Music Education | Post-Secondary Education | Issues

The Global Perspective on Music in Education

28 October 2013

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An authoritative account of what music "is" and "does" for the individual's identity and well-being, emotional development, connection with others, and creativity. Development of the musical brain, based on the rapid expansion of neurological research, is an integral part. The research strongly supports the case for giving music a much more prominent role in school education. The Knowledge Base takes pride in being able to welcome this article, together with its appendix and the summary of international research listed below.

Author: Mandy Stefanakis        Categories: Music and Brain Science | Mapping Music in Australia | Post-Secondary Education | Issues

Summary of International Research into the Benefits of Music Education

28 October 2013

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The summary reviews the research under the headings of aesthetic development, personal, social and cultural expression and identity formation, brain function, creativity, how music enhances learning in non-music domains, and social cohesion and skills. One of three articles entered almost simultaneously on the Knowledge Base reflecting major research into the value of music education. Academic contributions thoroughly documented and presented in an accessible form.

Author: Mandy Stefanakis and Robin S. Stevens        Categories: School Music Education | Mapping Music in Australia | Music and Brain Science | Issues | Post-Secondary Education

Post-secondary Music Study – The Australian Database

21 October 2013


A report on the most comprehensive survey ever compiled on post-secondary music education institutions in Australia, resulting in responses from 57 universities and conservatoriums, TAFE and private colleges. Most of the content of the article is presented in tables, in which each institution describes itself. Dick Letts comments that the diversity available for students in Australia is much wider than used to be the case. There is some tendency to specialisation between the universities and conservatoriums that tend to centre on classical music, and some jazz, and the colleges that mainly teach contemporary music, supplemented in some cases by music business and marketing courses. But the variety within each group is wide, as shown by the database that takes up the main part of the article.

Author: Richard Letts        Categories: Mapping Music in Australia | Statistics | Post-Secondary Education

The Benefits of Music for the Brain

17 October 2013


The article complements Music and Human Evolution, demonstrating the importance of music for wider human development according to neuroscience research — a fact highly relevant for music education at all levels. Music provides a powerful tool to enhance learning because of its wide-ranging effects on the brain and its ability to adapt to an ever-changing environment. The author specialises in music mind and wellbeing at the School of Psychological Sciences of the University of Melbourne. Her paper draws together emerging key perspectives from recent advances in neuroscience research, all pointing to the importance of music in stimulating wider fields of learning.

Author: Sarah J. Wilson        Categories: Music and Brain Science | Mapping Music in Australia | Music Research | School Music Education | Post-Secondary Education

Community Music: Australia's "Unsung Hero"

16 October 2013


The Sound Links project was conducted on a Australian Research Council grant in 2008-09 to learn more about a vibrant musical phenomenon, community music. The author summarises the results based largely on the six case studies identified through the project covering a variety of mainstream and Indigenous, urban and rural communities. Her analysis brings together a bundle of nine domains which allowed the research team to juxtapose the six very different practices adopted in the case studies. She considers this to be possibly the most significant result of the Sound Links research, because it creates a practice-based and demonstrably successful instrument to describe and gauge community music activities.

Author: Brydie-Leigh Bartleet        Categories: Mapping Music in Australia | Community Music | Issues | Australian Indigenous Music | Music Research

The Training of Specialist Music Teachers

16 October 2013

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Another classroom music teacher in Queensland comments on Thomas Canter's "good, bad and ugly in classroom music", offering four additional reasons to fight for specialist music teachers. The author, like Canter, had recently participated in a course offered to primary school classroom music teachers by Education Queensland, adding weight to his comments.

Author: Malcolm Tattersall        Categories: School Music Education | Issues

The Good, the Bad and the Ugly of Classroom Music

14 October 2013

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Classroom teacher Thomas Canter comments on the debate that arose after the National Review of School Music Education was published in 2005, making the case for the importance of music in Australian schools. Canter uses not just the good, bad and ugly as headings but additional ones including "the quite bizarre" — that the time allocated to give student teachers destined for state schools the ability to deliver a real music program is quite inadequate. Furthermore, "the good" in state primary schools is concentrated in Queensland with a classroom program which is way ahead of the rest of Australia. The views are as relevant today as when the National Review was debated in 2006.

Author: Thomas Canter        Categories: School Music Education | Issues

Music and Human Evolution

9 October 2013

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The author is Professor of Neuroscience at the University of Western Australia. His paper is one of several which have been selected from other sources as significant additions to the knowledge of music in Australia. The analysis of the academic literature coupled with Professor Harvey's own research findings provides strong evidence that sidelining music in the school curriculum and in music therapy is counterproductive. The paper provides compelling evolutionary, genetic and neurological evidence for the benefits of musical exposure, and is highly recommended.

Author: Alan R. Harvey        Categories: History and Evolution of Music | Music Research | Music and Health | School Music Education | Issues

Pre-service Music Instruction for Classroom Teachers

1 October 2013

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Rachel Hocking summarises an important research project which precisely quantifies the music education given to aspiring primary generalist classroom teachers to prepare them to deliver a music curriculum to children. She concludes that the incorporation of music into creative arts has resulted in less time and scope for music studies. This implies in teacher training programs, in the curricula, in national and local goals for education, and in accreditation requirements.

Author: Rachel Hocking        Categories: Mapping Music in Australia | Statistics | Issues | School Music Education | Post-Secondary Education

Why Teach Music in Schools? Changing Values Since the 1850s

28 September 2013


The subject of Associate Professor Robin Stevens's doctoral dissertation was the history of school music education in Australia, which is summarised in this article, originally presented as the inaugural keynote address at the Annual MCA Assembly, in 2002. He describes the original development of school music associated with vocal music in the 19th century , and how technological and other factors led to the expansion of the music curriculum with its attendant values, including the development of instrumental music education in Australian schools and growing extra-curricular activities.

Author: Robin S. Stevens        Categories: Mapping Music in Australia | School Music Education | Issues

Why Doesn't Your Town Have its Own Music School?

26 September 2013

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European countries have a vastly greater number of community music schools than Australia, where the total number is 25 or less (compared with 5,000 in Europe), of which the majority is in New South Wales. This classical article from 1996 discusses the pros and cons of school music education relative to cummunity schools which were often founded by people in the community to give specialised instructions to people of any age, through music classes and instrument teaching. In conclusion, there is a strong case for a movement to establish community music schools in Australia, to supplement and interact with the teaching that takes place in the local school education system. The issues raised remain highly relevant.

Author: Richard Letts        Categories: School Music Education | Issues | Community Music

Remaking the Conservatorium Agenda

25 September 2013

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This keynote speech by a distinguished British academic was delivered at a conference organised by the Queensland Conservatorium of Music in 2002. It ranges widely across cross-cultural influences from ethnic communities at home and abroad, the impact of technological change, and how to continue to involve and support a great diversity of music communities. The following quote goes some way towards encapsulating the message: "Because the nature and rate of change is now so significant, both the training sector and associated cultural institutions necessarily have to reappraise their priorities and reposition themselves if their future is to be assured."

Author: Peter Renshaw        Categories: Post-Secondary Education | Issues | Participation and Involvement | Technology | World Music | Cross-cultural Influences

The Knowledge Base Tree

23 September 2013


The structure of the Knowledge Base is usefully illustrated as a tree, with roots, trunks and branches. The root is the MCA Knowledge Base itself. It has five trunks, "About the Knowledge Base", "Fundamentals", "Music Creation and Performance", "Support and Infrastructure", and "Technology and Research". Each trunk supports a branching system of further categories and the actual articles making up the Knowledge Base. Each step is graphed with the tree itself, with its categories and subcategories, shown as Figure 8. The purpose of constructing the tree is to simplify the structure of the Knowledge Base for greater ease of navigation and identification of gaps to be filled to make the presentation complete.

Author: Hans Hoegh-Guldberg        Category: About the Knowledge Base | Mapping Music in Australia

From Outstation to Out There

18 September 2013


Well-known Northern Territory arts administrator Gillian Harrison was commissioned in 2003 to write the story of an Aboriginal group of musicians called Nabarlek, based in Arnhem Land. She describes how a talented group of young musicians were sponsored by private and government representatives using the framework of administration set up for Indigenous communities. Harrison's paper was published on DVD in 2003 and in Music Forum in 2004; it remains fresh and is recommended as the classical study that it is.

Author: Gillian Harrison        Categories: Australian Indigenous Music | Mapping Music in Australia

Finding Your Way Around

3 August 2013

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A brief introduction to the structure of the knowledge base linked to its home page, aimed at acquainting potential contributors to the knowledge base with its basic categories. It is part of the longer introductory article, Knowledge Base Aims and Structure, which contains potentially useful additional information.

Author: Hans Hoegh-Guldberg        Category: About the Knowledge Base

What's Behind the Growth in Swedish Music Exports?

29 July 2013

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This article is the final chapter of a report commissioned by the Swedish government in 1999, exploring the success of the Swedish music industry in securing a strong position on the world music export market. The report was published in 1999 but has long been an important background document in the MCA — so we decided to put it on the knowledge base for general access. Sweden is one of a handful of European countries which have developed significant music exports in competition with the US and UK (Denmark and Ireland are other examples). Written in 1999 the report precedes the digital revolution of the early 2000s. The main success factors identified for Sweden in the report are a strong expansion of municipal music schools since the 1970s, structural change in the Swedish music industry backed by international corporations, and the rise of a knowledgeable and critical domestic music market.

The Swedish report forms an important starting point for further analysis of what makes for successful export development in other countries including Australia, updated through the digital era.

Author: Kim Forss        Categories: Issues | Music Education and Training | School Music Education | International Promotion and Trade | Popular Music

Copyright Collection Societies Serving the Music Sector

1 July 2013

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A statistical description of the three copyright collecting societies specifically serving the creators of musical works: APRA (Australasian Performance Right Association Limited) which distributes royalties earned through live and mediated public performance, AMCOS (Australasian Mechanical Copyright Owners Society Limited) carrying out a similar function for the reproduction of musical works (AMCOS), and PPCA (Phonographic Performance Company of Australia Limited) looking after the interests of recording artists and record labels.

Author: Hans Hoegh-Guldberg        Categories: Statistics | Intellectual Property | Music Creation and Performance | Music Publishing | Composition | Mediated Performance

Short Survey of the Members of the Australian Chamber Orchestra (ACO)

23 June 2013

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An ensemble of world standing like the ACO needs to be highly selective of its players. This is likely to be the case for other leading Australian orchestras so this small survey is significant beyond its ACO base. An early start in instrumental training is essential for potential players who aspire to joining a leading orchestra such as the ACO. Most of these players went on to acquire postgraduate qualifications and consequently joined the ACO only at age 25 or later.

Author: Richard Letts        Categories: Statistics |School Music Education | Post-Secondary Education | Orchestral Music

Comparing the MCA Surveys of the Sydney and Tasmanian Symphony Orchestras

17 June 2013

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This brief article compares the surveys of the two MCA surveys focusing on the educational background of the Sydney Symphony and Tasmanian Symphony Orchestra. The extent of the similarities, given that the SSO is twice the size of the TSO and the population of Sydney is almost 25 times that of Hobart, provides support for the validity of the surveys despite their modest number of respondents.

Author: Richard Letts        Categories: Statistics | School Music Education | Post-Secondary Education | Orchestral Music

Survey of the Educational Background of the Musicians of the Sydney Symphony

17 June 2013

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The second survey of orchestral musicians also focuses on their educational background. As has been found elsewhere, most government and Catholic primary schools either offer no music education, or at a level which is insufficient to support the generally superior secondary school music programs that exist in Australia. This is frustrating to those talented students (and their parents) who cannot afford the private tuition from an early age which could otherwise have made them eligible, eventually, for a place in one of Australia's great orchestras. The third article in this series compares the findings from the SSO and TSO surveys (see above).

Author: Richard Letts        Categories: Statistics | School Music Education | Post-Secondary Education | Orchestral Music

Survey of the Musicians of the Tasmanian Symphony Orchestra

16 June 2013

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The current series of MCA surveys includes two of members of the Tasmanian Symphony Orchestra and the Sydney Symphony. The TSO survey is the first to be analysed and published on the knowledge base. The orchestra is relatively small for a survey but compensates for this by delivering a high response rate. The focus on these surveys is on the importance of education, from primary through secondary to conservatorium. More than any other factor, the musicians themselves point to inspiring instrumental teachers as a main contributor to their education. The SSO survey and the discussion paper are briefly described above.

Author: Richard Letts        Categories: Statistics | Music Education and Training | Music in Schools | Post-Secondary Education | Orchestral Music

Survey of Successful Contemporary Musicians

6 June 2013

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This MCA survey succeeded in attracting 52 genuinely successful musicians as respondents. One objective was to ask them about the quality of their school music education, which revealed evidence that younger musicians were least satisfied with their primary school music education, suggesting that the quality of school music education has deteriorated as students enter secondary school less qualified than they should be. Many of these musicians have university-level qualifications, but a significant number achieved their success without the benefit of a tertiary education.

Author: Richard Letts        Categories: Statistics | Issues | School Music Education | Post-Secondary Education | Popular Music

Australian Music Content on Commercial Radio

5 June 2013

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An elaborate system exists for the monitoring of commercial radio stations in Australia, through the Australian Music Performance Committee (AMPCOM) which is also the source of the data used in the article below. AMPCOM includes representatives of the main interest organisations and provides observer status to the government communications and media watchdog. Compliance with the Australian Code of Practice is generally high in the five codes set up for different program formats to monitor the level of local Australian content, and for the quotas set for new Australian music performances (released over the past twelve months) relative to broadcasts by commercial radio stations of any Australian performances. The statistics are from the 2011-12 annual AMPCOM report published in May 2013.

Author: Hans Hoegh-Guldberg        Categories: Statistics | Australian Content | Broadcasting | Recording Industry

Genres of New Australian Music Recordings

1 June 2013

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The Australian Music Performance Committee (AMPCOM) produces an annual table based on Australian Record Industry Association (ARIA) records, showing number of new Australian tracks for each of 11 music genres or groups of genres. Rock and pop are obviously dominant but other genre groups like country/folk and classical music have gained share. The statistical trends are somewhat chaotic but worth visiting.

Author: Hans Hoegh-Guldberg        Categories: Statistics | Issues | Manufacture and Trade | Recording Industry

Advocacy for Music Education in Schools

28 May 2013

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Review of MCA's efforts to influence government policies in a number of areas, especially the problems associated with bringing school music education up to better standards. Other issues include Australian content in online media and broadcasting. This article was first published in Music Forum in August 2012. MCA's advocacy work continues without interruption as described on the MCA website.

Author: Richard Letts        Categories: Issues | School Music Education | Post-Secondary Education | Government Support | Australian Content | Broadcasting | Government Policies and Interventions

The Complexity of Choice: Finding the Right Tertiary Music Program

28 May 2013

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It is becoming more complex for new students to decide which tertiary music program would suit their particular interests and needs. Growing financial pressures on tertiary music schools affecting their offerings add to their difficulties. "It would seem that students who seek to study music beyond their school years have even more homework to do than before!"

Author: Helen Lancaster        Categories: Issues | Economic Forces | Government Support | Post-Secondary Education

Music Study in Australia

23 May 2013


The music programs of 29 Australian conservatoria, universities and music schools are described here briefly in their own words. Students and teachers will find the information useful in searching for the best match to serve their needs for professional education in music.

Categories: Mapping Music in Australia | Post-Secondary Education

Postgraduate Music Study: Buyer Be Aware!

22 May 2013


Choosing a postgraduate option among a plethora of options is important. One essential choice as a research student is to secure a good supervisor for your academic research. The range of choice is wide and the rewards potentially great.

Author: Helen Lancaster        Categories: Mapping Music in Australia | Post-Secondary Education | Music Research

Variations on a Higher Degree

22 May 2013


The nature of music research is changing, reflecting a greater need and desire for post-graduate study. This applies whether or not musicians are seeking an academic career. At the same time, the diversity of higher degrees on offer has increased, and the quality of academic research has improved significantly in recent years.

Author: Helen Lancaster        Categories: Mapping Music in Australia | Post-Secondary Education | Music Research | Music Sector Technology | Technology

The Cost of the Uncollective Unconsciousness

21 May 2013

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Musicians' incomes are very low, the mean being significantly below the poverly line. Phil Graham takes a look at this vexed issue and concludes: how can incomes be lifted if musicians undermine each other and cannot act collectively? The article does not solve the problem but it identifies and describes it in no uncertain terms.

Author: Philip Graham        Categories: Issues | Economic Forces | Composition | Live Performance | Other Infrastructure Support

Don't Put Your Daughter on the Stage, Mrs Worthington...

21 May 2013

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The increasing influence of commercial imperatives is making the path to professional musicianship tougher than ever. Phil Graham outlines five challenges for the educator as well as aspiring musicians. 1 As the nature of the musicianship changes, so must the content of the music degree to prepare the student. 2 Practical and conceptual approaches to understanding the multiple effects of technologyon music and musicianship are essential learning for future professionals. 3 The aspiring professional must more than ever understand business and entrepreneurship. 4 The law is becoming ever more complex. 5 The student needs to know how communication is done well, and why it has become so important. Vital easy-to-read advice for any aspiring music professional, and for everyone to comprehend the challenge of change facing our artists.

Author: Philip Graham        Categories: Issues | Popular Music | Live Performance | Music Education and Training | Technology | Business and Related Training | Music Sector Technology | Economic Forces

Why the Music Business Matters

20 May 2013

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Music has been at the core of many technological breakthroughs from the industrial revolution into our own time. It has even been said that only a culture that brought forth the orchestral score could have produced the digital revolution. There is evidence that the music industry is a leading indicator of what might happen to creative workers generally — that music is the "canary in the coalmine" in today's political economy. Music heralds changes that could be shared by other workers in the rapidly developing creative economy. Given that the typical musician makes only a fraction of the minimum wage set in Australia, and that the music industry remains a leading indicator, the consequences may prove to be dire for other creative workers.

Author: Philip Graham        Categories: Issues | Economic Forces | Music Sector Technology | Technology | Other Infrastructure Support

Multicultural Arts: Change Must Come from the Top

20 May 2013

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Since 1992 the author has been building a cultural exchange network between Australia and Latin America. He finds that despite official statements of support, Australia’s great wealth of multicultural artists and arts remains marginalised. Only those major institutions that have the resources and capacity to do so can really change this, and they need to reshape their own policies and practices. Trying to work from bottom up has failed — change must come from the top.

Author: Justin MacDonnell        Categories: Issues | Genre Analysis | World Music | Cross-cultural Influences | Government Policies and Interventions | Government Support

Let a Thousand Flowers Bloom

14 May 2013


Nine of Australia’s most respected musicians and educators offer their advice to school students interested in a career in music. Their advice comes from a range of perspectives and common themes include networking, aspirations, education and training, career choices, versatility, dedication, and hard work.

Author: Alex Masso        Categories: Mapping Music in Australia | Issues | Music Education and Training

The National Cultural Policy: Creative Australia

13 May 2013

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MCA's founder wrote a description and critique of the National Cultural Policy (NCP), which was launched in March, as an editorial in the Autumn 2013 issue of Music Forum. It is reproduced as the first half of this article. The second half discusses, again critically, the review of the Australia Council that went on in parallel with the preparatory work on the NCP, and proposed new legislation for the Council.

Author: Richard Letts        Categories: Issues | Government Policies and Interventions | Government Support

Indigenous Festivals in Australia

12 May 2013


There are well over 100 Indigenous festivals in Australia annually — from small, one-day events with a focus on sport, music, culture, history or a mix of these, to a few large, complex tourism-arts events. The vast majority of Indigenous festivals are small, locally oriented events held primarily for their local Indigenous communities. There are obvious, pressing social and demographic reasons to support, engage and deploy any and all areas of Indigenous social and economic strength in the broader project of Indigenous community development. Dr Phipps's article first appeared in MCA's extensive review of Australian music festivals in Music Forum, April 2012.

Author: Peter Phipps        Categories: Mapping Music in Australia | Issues | Australian Indigenous Music | Music Festivals

The Outcomes of Young People’s Participation in Music Festivals

12 May 2013

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Two PhDs from the University of Queensland with a music and tourism background, respectively, identify four facets of young people's festival experiences: the music, social, festival, and separation experiences. The music experience provides the common ground on which the social and festival experiences thrive. The separation experience reinforces the other experiences by distinguishing the festival from everyday life.

Authors: Jan Packer and Julie Ballantyne        Categories: Mapping Music in Australia | Music Festivals | Music Research | Participation and Involvement | Venues and Audiences

Music Festival Statistics

11 May 2013

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A comprehensive list of music festivals in Australia was compiled by Carolina Triana for the special festivals review in Music Forum, April 2012. This article presents the list classified into states and territories and capital cities versus non-metropolitan locations within each. The statistical analysis covers location (70% of music festivals take place in non-metropolitan areas), genres (led by country music, jazz, and folk music), state and territory shares in the total number of festivals, and seasonal pattern. The article is illustrated by easy-to-understand charts and tables.

Author: Hans Hoegh-Guldberg        Categories: Statistics | Music Festivals | Community Music | Contemporary Music Genres

Digital Value Chains for Music Promotion, Licensing, and Sales

7 May 2013

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This major article was written by an academic who is also an active musician. It was originally published as a special extension of MCA's quarterly Music Forum, and combines a detailed description ("map") of the digital music scene with a discussion of the issues associated with this rapidly changing situation. Professor Graham demonstrates the dominant positions of iTunes, Amazon MP3 and Google Music, the role of the current digital distribution services ("aggregators") in the value chains, and a host of other aspects. Above all, he tells the story with illustrations of his own experiences as a self-publishing musician, which leads him to opt for "hybrid" platforms which provide both distribution and wider access to the range of online digital services. The business model, he concludes, is changing rapidly and somewhat unpredictably, but at least for now, the big loser in most of the business models presented here is the artist.

Author: Philip Graham        Categories: Mapping Music in Australia | Issues | Technology | Recording Industry

Tastes for Music

28 April 2013

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The editor and the key adviser on the knowledge base have been rethinking its structure, and how to make it as relevant as possible. Rethinking the fundamentals we realised that it all comes back to tastes, and a love of music. The founder of the Music Council, Dick Letts, wrote this inspired piece on the role of the knowledge base, concluding: 'Once, music would have been as simple as a human and a voice and a listener. The listener might have been that same human. This is still at the base of the musical edifice. If that is forgotten, Music in Australia would be an arid place indeed.'

Author: Richard Letts        Categories: Issues | Trends in Musical Taste | About the Knowledge Base

The Australian Recording Industry

5 April 2013

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The article follows the completed description of the global recording industry listed below. It highlights the situation in Australia which is affected by similar factors. The article includes a section on the vast influence from an ever-growing Internet, with the number of users tripling over 12 years and downloads expanding by a staggering compound annual rate of 65%, seeing the total growing from a single terabyte per quarter in 2000 (a million megabytes) to a total 500 times greater in 2012 — and showing only a modest tendency to slow down.

Author: Hans Hoegh-Guldberg        Categories: Statistics | Technology | Mapping Music in Australia | Issues | Intellectual Property | Manufacture and Trade | Recording Industry

Technology and the Recorded Music Industry

27 March 2013

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The recorded music industry is truly global and highly influenced by technology; especially since the beginning of the 21st century when the introduction of commercial digital music products began to disrupt the industry. Globally, it has seen sales of physical albums, singles and DVDs decline from about $32 billion in 2005 to 11 billion in 2012 (a fall of some $21 billion). During the same period, revenue from digital recordings rose by only 4.4 billion to $5.6 billion, although the digital share rose to 34% of the global value of all recorded music, from practically nothing 10 years earlier. This extraordinary structural change is reflected in all major national markets. Recently, however, there are renewed signs of optimism. The article was written to provide background for a statistical analysis of the Australian industry, which was subsequently finished (see above).

Author: Hans Hoegh-Guldberg        Categories: Statistics | Technology | Mapping Music in Australia | Issues | Intellectual Property | Manufacture and Trade | Recording Industry

Secondary School Music Teaching

13 March 2013

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This is the last of three articles describing Irina Petrova's doctoral thesis on school music education. Based on her survey of secondary school teachers it provides analysis along lines similar to the primary school article listed immediately below, to the extent that this is practical with a smaller sample. The article happened to be finished on the same day that the then Australian Minister for the Arts, Simon Crean, announced Australia's new cultural policy, "Creative Australia". The policy includes making the arts part of the curriculum in all Australian schools. The final section of this article indicates the challenge of implementing this when large numbers of secondary as well as primary schools have no classroom music teaching, and in the case of primary schools a large percentage of inadequately trained music teachers in those schools that do have classroom music teaching. The challenge, of course, has to be met.

Author: Hans Hoegh-Guldberg        Categories: Statistics | Mapping Music in Australia | Issues | Music Research | School Music Education

Primary School Music Teaching

9 March 2013

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This is the second of three articles describing Irina Petrova's doctoral thesis on school music education. It centres on her survey on primary school teachers which it reviews under the headings of teachers' gender and age, teachers' qualifications, teachers' confidence, challenges, meeting the demands of teaching, and conclusions. The link to the third article on secondary schools is shown above.

Author: Hans Hoegh-Guldberg        Categories: Statistics | Mapping Music in Australia | Issues | Music Research | School Music Education

Major Research into School Music Education

6 March 2013

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Irina Petrova in 2012 completed a comprehensive PhD thesis on the state of music education in Australia's primary and secondary schools. In her work to identify the issues confronting school music — the state of which is parlous especially in primary schools — this research is also designed to fill a major gap in statistical knowledge within the music sector. This is the first of three articles describing and discussing Petrova's work. It focuses on the issues confronting school music. The second article features primary schools and the third article secondary schools.

Author: Hans Hoegh-Guldberg        Categories: Statistics | Mapping Music in Australia | Issues | Music Research | School Music Education

A Tropical Abundance — Music in Townsville

19 January 2013

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An educator and composer who has taught in Townsville, North Queensland, for more than 20 years outlines the musical life of this relatively isolated urban community, and how it has been supported and nourished by the informed policies of the state education authority and its private sector counterparts. The precursor for the article originally appeared in Music Forum under the name of "The Ant Colony". It is hoped that this exposure of the school education and resulting music performance scene in a region will spark similar efforts covering other areas. It is also part of an effort to make contributions originally published in Music Forum accessible through the Knowledge Base.

Author: Malcolm Tattersall        Categories: Mapping Music in Australia | Issues | Community Music | School Music Education

Compiled by Hans Hoegh-Guldberg, editor, Knowledge Base.

For previous summaries, see Additions to Knowledge Base in 2011 and Additions to Knowledge Base in 2012

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