This page doubles as the ‘References’ page for all the following articles. Because of that extra function it includes some items which are not (to my knowledge) available online.

Noise Exposure of Music Teachers  (Introductory article)
Defining the Problem
Teaching Strategies to Reduce Noise Exposure
Approximating Noise Exposure in Small-group Woodwind Lessons
Hearing Loss, Noise Exposure and the Law
Hearing Protection for Music Teachers
Early Warning Signs of Hearing Loss


Behar, Alberto, Ewen MacDonald, Jason Lee, Jie Cui, Hans Kunov and Willy Wong. ‘Noise Exposure of Music Teachers.’ Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 1: 243–247 (JOEH1). April 2004, 243-247. Available as pdf from
Camets Acoustics.
(Commercial site; includes statistical table of expected hearing loss for different levels and periods of exposure.)
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. ‘What kinds of health effects can be caused by exposure to noise?’ At with links to related topics.
Chandler, Hayley. ‘An Earful of Sound Advice.’ OHS Canada (Advice on different kinds of hearing protection and how to choose between them.); site still exists but link is dead.
Chasin, Marshall. ‘Music-Related Hearing Loss and Its Prevention – Humming, Earplugs, and Moderation.’ CAOHC Update, The Newsletter of the Council for Accreditation in Occupational Hearing Conservation, Vol 16 No 1, Winter/Spring 2004. Download pdf from
Commonwealth of Australia OCCUPATIONAL NOISE National Standard NOHSC:1007(2000) and National Code of Practice NOHSC:2009(2000), 2nd Edition, July 2000. Download pdf from
Department of Industrial Relations, Queensland. ‘Workplace Health and Safety (Noise) Advisory Standard 2004.’ Available from as html or as a pdf download from link on the same page.
Eaton, Stuart. ‘Determining School Music Teachers’ Noise Exposure.’ Workers Compensation Board of British Columbia, 1999. Available as a pdf file from
Eaton, Stuart and Heather Gillis. ‘A Review of Orchestral Musicians’ Hearing Loss Risks.’ Workers Compensation Board of BC. (Reviews and analyses several previous studies.)
Griffith University. ‘Occupational Health and Safety for the Visual and Performing Arts.’ Formerly at but no longer available there.
Hayes, P. Noise induced hearing loss in music educators. Unpublished manuscript (2005). Downloaded as Word document from in 2005 but no longer available there.
Health & Safety Executive UK.
—. ‘Worried about your hearing? (Essentially faq’s.)
—. ‘Regulations.’ (New UK and European action levels.)
—. ‘Noise – Exposure Calculator.’ (Downloadable spreadsheets for calculating daily or weekly exposure.)
Holland, Nicholas Vedder. Mapping Sound Intensities by Seating Position in a University Concert Band: A Risk of Hearing Loss, Temporary Threshold Shifts, and Comparisons with Standards of OSHA and NIOSH. Ph D thesis, University of North Carolina, 2004.
Keefe, Joseph. ‘Hearing Loss: Noise Exposure Associated with Marching and Pep Bands.’ Was at but address doesn’t exist.
Lee, Jason, Alberto Behar, Hans Kunov, and Willy Wong. ‘Musicians’ Noise Exposure in Orchestra Pit.’ Applied Acoustics 66 (2005) 919-931. Available as pdf from under ‘Audition’)
Leitmann, Thilo. ‘Noise Levels in Discotheques. An Estimation of the Risk of Hearing Impairment.’ PACS: 43.50.Qp. Institute of Technical Acoustics. Pdf was available from in 2006 but has vanished.
Meyer, Juergen. Acoustics and the Performance of Music. Frankfurt am Main: Verlag das Musikinstrument, 1978.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health USA. ‘Common Hearing Loss Prevention Terms.’
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health USA. ‘Information and Resources.’
Newman, Craig. ‘How Did My Tinnitus Become So Annoying?’ CAOHC Update, The Newsletter of the Council for Accreditation in Occupational Hearing Conservation, Vol 16 No 1, Winter/Spring 2004. Download pdf from
NOHSC Australia ‘2001 Annual Situation Report – Occupational Noise’ and ‘2003 Annual Situation Report – Occupational Noise’ were downloaded from and but are now at
Owens, Douglas T. An Analysis of the High School Band Director’s Exposure to Sound Pressure Levels. Doctor of Arts thesis, University of Northern Colorado, 2003.
Presbury, John and Warwick Williams. ‘Occupational noise management in an orchestral setting.’ J Occup Health Safety – Aust NZ (2000), 16 (4): 337-342.
Queensland Gov’t Department of Employment, Training and Industrial Relations division of Workplace Health and Safety. ‘Noise in the music entertainment industry.’
Royer, Randall D. Sound Pressure Levels and Frequencies Generated in Secondary Public School Band Rooms. Ph.D thesis, University of Utah, 1996.
Russell, Kathy. ‘Getting My New Earplugs’ (the second of two articles on the page)
Strauss, Stephen, ‘Piccolo Peril’
Tattersall, Malcolm. ‘Reducing the Noise.’ Music Forum, Vol 12 No 2, Feb – April 2006: 47-50. (Essentially Defining the Problem plus Teaching Strategies to Reduce Noise Exposure as on this site.)
Toppila, Esko. A Systems Approach to Individual Hearing Conservation. Thesis, University of Helsinki, 2000. Available as pdf download from
Wicks, Steven A. ‘Flutes or Piccolos Could Harm Your Hearing.’
Wolfe, Joe, UNSW ‘Music Acoustics’


Malcolm Tattersall, 2006, updated in April 2014 when the material was transferred to the Knowledge Base. Entered on Knowledge Base 21 April 2014.

A Townsville, Queensland, based musician, teacher and composer whose musical interests centre on the recorder. He regularly contributes record reviews for Music Forum but his primary occupation since 1980 has been teaching woodwinds in schools, both primary and secondary. He taught in state and independent schools in Melbourne for ten years before moving to Townsville where he has taught in state, Catholic and independent schools for twenty years.

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