• Its ordinariness.
  • Its power.
  • Its biological underpinning (everybody wants to do it).
  • Its ease of implementation (virtually no resources required).


  • No commonly held sense of identity or purpose.
  • Confusion / argument about what it ‘is’.
  • ‘Fear of judgment’ – many have been convinced that they can’t do it.
  • Loss of a common repertoire.


  • Development of public policy in the areas of health promotion (wellbeing) and social inclusion (belonging).
  • Shift in education perspectives (multiple intelligences, civics, community engagement).
  • Scientific research (particularly neuroscience).
  • DIY-type attitudes.


  • Commodification.
  • Trivialisation / marginalisation.
  • Invisibility.
  • Public outcome fetishism.
  • Appropriation.
  • ‘Expertism’ (& public policy focus on professionalisation).
  • ‘Excellence’ obsession.


Jon Hawkes

Community Music Victoria.

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